Rosh Hashana , el Año Nuevo Judío, 5772.

La celebración del Año Nuevo Judío, Rosh Hashana, tiene su base en la Biblia, antiguo testamento, donde está escrito: “En el mes septimo (Tishri), el primer día del mes, será para vosotros reposo, recuerdo del toque del cuerno -shofar-, convocación sagrada” (Levítico 23: 24). Así, el día uno del mes Tishri celebramos el año nuevo.

¿Porque el séptimo mes es el año nuevo? Porque en mes Nisan, cuando cae fiesta de Pesaj también es el año nuevo para las festividades de Israel, que son ellas en recuerdo de la salida de Egipto. También existe y Rosh Hashana para los arboles, en mes Shvat cuando todo el pueblo lo celebra plantando los arboles.
A partir  del primero de Teshrei se cuenta el inicio del período cíclico de rotación del sol y la luna. Tishrei se considera como el mes en que D-os creó el mundo y es a partir de esta celebración cuando se cuentan los años.

Costumbres del Año Nuevo


Tengo que acordaros que todas las fiestas judías empiezan por la noche, cuando salen tres primeras estrellas en el cielo. Este año, la celebración comienza al anochecer de la víspera de Rosh Hashana, el día 28 de septiembre y la celebración empezamos encendiendo las velas y recitando las bendiciones correspondientes.
En la sinagoga el shofár se toca durante la plegaria matutina. La mitzvá esencial (el merito esencial) de Rosh Hashaná es escuchar el sonido del shofar. El sonido de este cuerno, llama a los judíos a la meditación, al autoanálisis y al arrepentimiento. Es el primero de los diez días (Yamim Noaraim), de balance de los actos y de las acciones realizadas, de plegaria y sensibilidad especiales (Aseret Yemei Teshuva) que terminan con el Yom Kippur (Día del Perdón). En la diáspora Rosh Hashana celebramos dos días mientras en Israel se celebra solo un día.

A partir de la primera noche de Rosh Hashana es costumbre desear a los familiares, amigos y conocidos “ Le Shana Tova Tikatev ve Tejatem “ que significa : Para un buen año que sea inscripto y sellado. Creemos que en los diez días entre Rosh Hashana y Yom Kippur el eterno abre el Libro de la inscripción para la vida en año que viene, y el día Yom Kipur el libro estará sellado. Un elemento clave en la preparación de Rosh Hashaná es pedir disculpas a toda persona a quien le pudiésemos ofender durante el año anterior. En lo posible, queremos comenzar el año sin que nadie resguarde rencor contra nosotros. También hay que perdonar a aquellos que nos han hecho sentir mal.

Comida para Rosh Hashana

En esta fiesta, se utiliza una jalá (el pan) redonda – simbolizando integridad y finalización. Después de haber hecho la bendición de “Hamotzi” para pan, es costumbre untar el pan en miel – para que el nuevo año sea dulce. Una de las costumbres más bellas practicada en la mayoría de las casas judías es la tradición de comer manzanas sumergidas en miel mientras decimos la oración de que este año nuevo sea dulce como la manzana en la miel. La costumbre viene por asociación al término cabalista” Jakal Tapujín”, una finca de manzanas, que se refiere a la justicia divina. Esta oración simbólicamente capta la justicia divina y la sumerge en dulzura.
En Rosh Hashaná comemos alimentos que simbolizan cosas buenas que deseamos para siguiente año. Revisamos lo que estas comidas simbolizan, y las conectamos con la Fuente de todas las cosas buenas.
Después de comer calabaza, decimos: “Sea Tu voluntad, Dios, que el decreto de nuestra sentencia sea roto, y que nuestros méritos sean PROCLAMADOS ante Ti”.
Después de comer granada, decimos: “Sea Tu voluntad, Dios, que nuestros méritos aumenten como las semillas de la granada”. Supuestamente la granada contiene 613 granos, igual como 613 Mitzvot ( meritos) en judaísmo.
Después de comer parte de cabeza de un pescado, decimos: “Sea Tu voluntad, Dios, que seamos como cabeza y no como cola de los pueblos”

Tashlij

Una de las caracteristicas del día de Rosh Hashaná es el rezo especial llamado el Tashlij, que es recitado después del rezo de la tarde del primer día de Rosh Hashaná. En hebreo, la palabra tashlij significa “arroja”, porque nos arrojamos al agua (puede ser a la orilla del mar, de un lago, un río o un cuenco simbólico del agua) mientras decimos:
“Quien es como Tú, Oh Di-s, que disculpa el pecado y perdona la trasgresión? …Tú echarás todos nuestros pecados dentro de las profundidades del mar. Y todos los pecados de Tu pueblo Tú echarás en un lugar donde ellos no serán evocados ni contados, ni se pensará en ellos hasta la eternidad”
Sin embargo, no se puede disponer de los pecados tan fácilmente. El único camino para deshacernos de nuestros pecados es teshuvá apropiada: un arrepentimiento claro y un firme valor de nunca repetir los malos actos.
El simbolismo del tashlij está en la plegaria. Una vez que hemos hecho lo que es necesario para lograr el perdón, nuestros pecados serán arrojados lejos para que nunca sean evocados ni contados, ni se piense en ellos otra vez.
De esta manera el agua simboliza la bondad de Di-s, los peces representan los ojos del Eterno que siempre se encuentran abiertos velando por Sus creaciones.

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103 Responses to “Rosh Hashana , el Año Nuevo Judío, 5772.”

  1. Qué interesante, Rozita. Me ha gustado mucho conocer estas tradiciones, sobre todo la parte de la comida (especialmente me ha encantado lo de las manzanas sumergidas en miel…) ¡Que tengáis un feliz Rosh Hashana!

  2. Gracias Silvia. Espero que en futuro hablaremos más de la comida hebrea y prometo que os daré las mejores recetas.

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