El miedo a la pluralidad

Todos los seres humanos tenemos miedo a la diversidad, pues la confrontación con las personas que piensan y actúan distinto, nos obliga a plantearnos la bondad de nuestras ideas. En el caso español no ayuda nuestra historia reciente en la que primó el pensamiento único. Durante la dictadura franquista los medios de comunicación estaban censurados y los partidos políticos prohibidos, de forma, que los que se aventuraban por  sendas vedadas podían acabar con los huesos en la cárcel. El credo religioso siguió el mismo camino, fuera del catolicismo no había salvación e incluso dentro de sus filas, los que no participaban de las creencias comunes eran tildados de heterodoxos y amenazados con un final semejante al de los que no eran miembros de la Iglesia. Tampoco servía la mirada hacia atrás pues las diferencias enconadas que aparecieron antes de 1936 acabaron con una guerra civil.

            La casualidad ha hecho que en mi mesa hayan aparecido a la vez tres libros que afrontan el tema de la pluralidad desde diversos ángulos. El primero es un número reciente, de la revista Concilium que lleva el sugestivo título de Vivir en la diversidad. Sus diferentes capítulos, desde una perspectiva interdisciplinar e intercultural, ofrecen nuevos enfoques a las comunidades para ayudarlas a responder a los desafíos de la pluralidad. Hay un denominador común entre los diversos autores ya que todos recomiendan el diálogo y la conversación entre los agentes de una determinada comunidad para afrontar la diversidad y el pluralismo de nuestro tiempo de forma enriquecedora.

            La otra obra es de Victorino Pérez Prieto, La búsqueda de la armonía en la diversidad (EVD), un rótulo que resume a la perfección lo que el autor pretende. Abre el libro con una frase de Casaldáliga “Dios une, la religión separa” que nos da que pensar” pues es cierto que la historia está sembrada de guerras de religión, una confrontación a la que salió al paso el Concilio Vaticano II con la propuesta de  un espíritu de diálogo. Pasados los años se han celebrado encuentros entre cristianos, no cristianos y personas de buena voluntad con la conciencia de que hoy la dimensión cósmica de Dios nos obliga a relativizar nuestras diferencias. El autor nos ofrece las diferentes propuestas teológicas que se han elaborado para encajar dentro de nuestro catolicismo, antaño excluyente, este nuevo espíritu. La meta sería conseguir esa armonía invisible y enriquecedora, que nos une a todos los seres humanos y a toda la Realidad sin anular las diferencias.

            El tercer libro que descansa sobre mi mesa es una novela rusa. Su autora, Liudmila Ulítskaia, se ha inspirado en un personaje real para construir a su protagonista Daniel Stein, intérprete (Alba). Lo que las obras anteriores propiciaron con el pensamiento, Stein lo llevó a la práctica, desde una vida que hubiera parecido más propicia al fundamentalismo. Nace judío en Polonia, sobrevive al nazismo como intérprete de la Gestapo, tras la guerra se convierte al catolicismo, entra en la orden carmelitana y se ordena sacerdote. Con este variopinto bagaje traslada su residencia a Israel donde entabla relaciones con todos los grupos: coptos, ortodoxos, judíos y ateos.

            Su tolerancia y ayuda a todo el que lo necesitaba sin preguntar por su credo no siempre cosechó parabienes, tuvo rechazos, incendiaron su iglesia e incluso sus superiores le denunciaron. La moraleja está muy clara: no es fácil el diálogo, la tolerancia y el intento de comprender al otro pero nadie ha dicho que el cristianismo, con sus demandas lo sea. A pesar de que se puedan cosechar tempestades, el diálogo es imprescindible en un mundo tan diverso como el nuestro y estos libros nos ofrecen pistas que nos dan la tranquilidad de estar en el buen camino.

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