Ley sobre las viudas y las extranjeras (Ex 22,20-23; Dt 16, 9-15; 24, 17-22)[1].

   Huérfanos, viudas y extranjeros/as. El derecho israelita se ha ocupado de un modo especial de las viudas quienes (con los huérfanos y los extranjeros) formaban el estrato más desfavorecido de la población. Viuda (‘almanah) es una mujer que no recibe ayuda económica o protección social de ningún varón, sea porque su marido ha muerto, sea porque ha sido abandonada y queda sola, sin padres, hermanos o parientes que cuiden de ella.

 

PRINCIPIOS

En aquel contexto patriarcalista y violento era imposible vivir sola, pues la unidad fundante y el espacio base de existencia era la “casa” o familia y, fuera de ella, una mujer (¡si era aún  joven!) se hacía prostituta o vagaba sin ayuda por el territorio. En ese contexto se entiende la institución del levirato (Dt 25,5-10): el hermano o pariente más cercano del marido muerto ha de casarse con la viuda, no sólo para asegurar la descendencia del difunto sino para protegerle (darle casa) a ella (cf Gen 38; Rut 4).  

Una serie de textos (de carácter más exhortatorio que impositivo) han vinculado a las viudas con los huérfanos y viudas, pidiendo a la sociedad que les ayude (cf. Is 1,23; Jer 49,1; Job 22,9; 24,3; Lam 5,3), porque Yahvé es Padre de huérfanos, Juez de viudas (Sal 68,6). El mismo Dios toma bajo su protección sagrada de padre (‘ab) el cuidado/educación de los huérfanos, apareciendo al mismo tiempo como defensor o juez (dayan) de las viudas, mostrándose así  fuente de familia para aquellos que carecen de ella.

Con los huérfanos y viudas se vinculan los forasteros o gerim,  que son los que residen (gur) en la tierra israelita, pero sin formar parte de la institución sagrada de las tribus. No se han integrado en la estructura económico/social y religiosa del pueblo de la alianza, pero tampoco son extranjeros en sentido estricto (zar o nokri) pues los que provienen de otro país conservan el derecho de su lugar de origen, mientas que los gerim o forasteros peregrinan o vagan por la tierra sin protección jurídico/social, como hacían los patriarcas (cf. Gen 12,10; 20,1) o se encuentran sometidos a los habitantes propios del país, como los israelitas en Egipto (cf. Gen 47,4; Ex 2, 22).

De todas formas, la diferencia entre extranjeros (bajo la protección de la ley de otro país) y forasteros (sin ninguna protección legal) puede resultar pequeña en un contexto donde no existía un derecho internacional reconocido por todos. Especial importancia tienen, como hemos visto y seguiremos viendo (cf. cap.    ), las mujeres extranjeras, por el riesgo que ellas tienen (se supone) de contaminar la pureza de la religión y de la “raza” israelita.

Éste es un tema muy complejo, que no ha sido bien articulado en la legislación israelita, en la que pueden distinguirse dos líneas. (a) Por una parte, las mujeres extranjeras deben ser protegidas por los israelitas, en la medida en que son necesitadas, como los huérfanos y las viudas, pues ellas están bajo la protección especial de Dios. (b) Por otra parte, esas mujeres aparecen como una amenaza para la identidad del pueblo, de manera que en muchos estratos de la Ley se prohíbe que los israelitas de casen con ellas, como seguiremos viendo . 

 

TEXTOS BÁSICOS

 

 Expresamente, estas “leyes” tratan de las viudas en cuanto viudas (mujeres) y de los huérfanos y extranjeros (que pueden ser varones y mujeres); en este contexto no se hace distinción de sexos, aunque en el caso  los extranjeros se distinga en otros contextos la situación de los varones y de las mujeres, como he dicho ya. De todas formas, las leyes básicas tratan de igual forma de unos y de otras, como indica ya el antiguo dodecálogo de Siquem (Dt 27,15-26), que dice, entre otras cosas:

 

¡Maldito quien niegue su derecho al forastero, huérfano y viuda!

Y todo el pueblo responda: así sea  (Dt 27, 19).

 

El texto supone que un levita proclama en nombre de Dios la ley sagrada (misppat) que exige (bajo juramento o “maldición”) la defensa de los más débiles y que todo el pueblo debe responder así sea. Entre los “débiles”, los que no pueden contar con la ayuda de un “vengador de sangre” o de unos familiares fuertes que les defiendan están los huérfanos, viudas y forasteros. Pues bien, la Ley de Israel afirma que ellos tienen unos derechos superiores, avalados por el mismo Dios. Pues bien, esta norma se encuentra en la base de la vida israelita, lo mismo que el rechazo de la idolatría (27,15) y las leyes de pureza sexual y protección personal (27, 20-25), avaladas por este dodecálogo de Siquem, las más antiguas de las legislaciones recogidas en la Biblia. 

En esa línea sigue el Código de la Alianza (Ex 20, 22-23, 19), que aparece integrado en la teofanía y el pacto del Sinaí (Ex 19-24), como una continuación del Decálogo y que incluye diversas leyes de tipo social, criminal, económico y cultual que forman la base de toda la legislación israelita. Entre ellas destaca la ley de las viudas y de los forasteros/as:  

 

            No oprimirás ni vejarás al forastero, porque forastero fuisteis en Egipto. No explorarás a la viuda y al huérfano, porque si ellos gritan a mí yo los escucharé. Se encenderá mi ira y os haré morir a espada, y quedarán viudas vuestras mujeres y huérfanos vuestros hijos (Ex 22, 20-23).

 

La ley del forastero (22,20) queda avalada por historia israelita: forasteros o gerim fueron antaño aquellos que forman hogaño el pueblo de la alianza; por eso no pueden olvidar su origen y oprimir ahora a los que están sin casa. En ese contexto se incluye la ley de huérfanos y viudas. Si alguien les explota ellos pueden gritar y Dios les oye, como escuchó a los israelitas en Egipto (comparar con Ex 3, 7).

El tema vuelve a presentarse en el cuerpo del Deuteronomio (Dt 12-26), que recoge y sistematiza en torno al exilio unas leyes muy antiguas que se sitúan en el contexto de las fiestas. La misma reforma deuteronomista que ha procurado mantener y restablecer la alianza israelita pone de relieve el derecho de aquellas personas que parecen expulsadas de esa alianza:

 

Celebrarás (la fiesta) ante Yahvé, tu Dios, tú y tus hijos y tus hijas y tus siervos y tus siervas, y el levita que está junto a tus puertas, y el forastero, y el huérfano y la viuda que viva entre los tuyos, en el lugar que Yahvé tu Dios elija para que more allí su nombre. Recuerda que fuiste siervo de Egipto; guarda y cumple todos estos preceptos (Dt 16, 11-12)

 

 Se alude aquí a la Fiesta de las Semanas (Pentecostés), pero el tema se repite también en la de de los Tabernáculos (16, 13-15). En los días de fiesta, el israelita debe abrir el espacio de su casa y familia, acogiendo a los que no tienen familia y, de un modo especial, a las viudas. En ese contexto se sitúa la ley de la solidaridad económica, en el momento de la recogida de los frutos: 

 

 No defraudarás el derecho del emigrante y del huérfano  y no tomarás en prenda la ropa de la viuda… Cuando siegues la mies de tu campo… no recojas la gavilla olvidada; déjasela al forastero, al huérfano y a la viuda… Cuando varees tu olivar, no repases sus ramas; dejárselas al forastero, al huérfano y a la viuda.  Cuando vendimies tu viña no rebusques los racimos… (cf. Dt 24, 17-22).

 

Frente a la tendencia a la acaparación, se expone aquí un principio más alto de solidaridad y participación, que se abre de un modo especial a las viudas. En ese contexto se sitúa el principio más alto de la revelación de Dios «que no es parcial, ni acepta soborno, sino que hace justicia al huérfano y a la viuda y ama al forastero para darle pan y vestido» (Dt 10, 17-18).

Esta “ley” de los huérfanos, viudas y extranjeros nos llega de un contexto social antiguo, de manera que para entenderla plenamente habría que aplicarla a nuestra situación. Es muy posible que la situación de las viudas haya cambiado y que quizá existan otros grupos de mujeres tan necesitadas. Por otra parte, esas leyes que aquí aparecen de un modo parenético (sin concreción jurídica, como buenos deseos teológicos) deberían concretarse.

Pero es evidente que aquí nos encontramos ante uno de los testimonios religiosos y sociales más “elevados” de la cultura humana, como ha puesto de relieve E. Levinas, uno de los filósofos judíos más significativos del siglo XX. A su juicio, la política y la vida social de occidente (y del mundo en su conjunto) se ha mantenido en la línea del triunfo del sistema (es decir, de la totalidad triunfante). Pues bien, en contra de eso, estos pasajes de la Biblia Judía nos abren a la experiencia del Dios infinito (más allá del sistema), que se revela precisamente en los expulsados (huérfanos-viudas-forasteros), que son sus representantes en la tierra. Siguiendo en esa línea se puede elaborar una visión distinta de la mujer (y de los expulsados y necesitados de la sociedad).

 

 


[1] Cf. J. Fensham, Widow, Orphan the Poor in Ancient Legal and Wisdom Literature, JNES 21(1962) 129-139; H. A, Hoffner, Almanah (viuda), DTAT 1,305-309; N. L. Levison, The Proselyte in Biblical and Early Post-Biblical times, SJT 10 (1957) 45-66;   I. Weller, Zum Schicksal der Witwen and Waisen bei den Völkern der Alten Welt, Altertum 31 (1981) 157-197.

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