El liberal

“Cuando hay que elegir entre uno y otro lado de la barricada, el liberal, el pobre liberal, no sabe qué hacer. No porque ignore, como el hombre que duda, donde está la razón, sino porque no alcanza a quitar la razón del todo a nadie, ni a dársela a nadie por entero. Por eso suele ir de aquí para allá, como con una aparente ligereza, que es sólo generosidad profunda. Por eso en los dos lados le miran con desconfianza y muchas veces desde ambos le lapidan”, así escribía Gregorio Marañón, el gran médico humanista, hace ya muchos años, en circunstancias todavía reconocibles.

Cuando releo estas frases me pregunto si podemos aceptar en el adjetivo “liberal”, dado el uso que hoy en día tiene,  estas notas distintivas del concepto como Marañón lo presenta. Es interesante recordar que esta palabra es una de las que el español ha exportado a muchas otras lenguas, aunque también  en ellas, los significados han variado mucho. En una época como la nuestra, en la que la palabra “tolerancia” está siendo usada en contextos tan variados, tal vez no vendría mal retomar el adjetivo liberal en el uso que tuvo en sus orígenes castellanos que, como la cita de D. Gregorio demuestra, está más cerca de la generosidad que otra cosa. Sí, aquí es donde me quería mover. Muchas veces la palabra tolerancia parece hacer alusión a aceptar a los demás tal como son con todas las consecuencias para la convivencia y la organización política de una sociedad. Es evidente que el énfasis en estos casos se pone en el respeto a la diversidad e incluso en la aceptación de la riqueza social que supone la pluralidad en las formas de ser y actuar. Sin embargo esta concepción de la tolerancia puede desembocar en la creación de grupos aislados y desintegrados, lo que normalmente se convierte en caldo de cultivo del enfrentamiento. De ahí que el propio Marañón hable de “barricadas”. Si de verdad buscamos una sociedad que pacíficamente camine hacia el desarrollo de las potencialidades del ser humano y hacia las metas inherentes a su dignidad, habrá que velar también por la integración de la diversidad y la interacción de los distintos. Es aquí donde la propuesta de la generosidad intelectual, a la que el adjetivo liberal apunta, tiene una importancia grande. Efectivamente las propuestas de bien común surgen del pensamiento que se expresa en afirmaciones. Normalmente esas afirmaciones tienen para quien las mantiene el carácter de verdaderas. Claro está que inmediatamente surge la pregunta fatal: ¿qué es la verdad? Antonio Machado decía “¿Tu verdad? No. La verdad y ven conmigo a buscarla, la tuya guárdatela”. No, no es tan fácil la propuesta machadiana de búsqueda de la verdad en común, incluso se podría considerar intolerante. ¿Por qué? Porque sencillamente la verdad solo es accesible en forma de mi verdad. Aquí tenemos el dilema planteado: tener convicciones profundas y ser intolerante o ser tolerante sin pensamiento propio, sometido al va y viene de las consignas y la propaganda. No olvidemos la cita que iniciaba esta columna: el liberal no es una veleta sino un alma generosa que tiene convicciones razonables pero  que, sin darle la razón a todo y a todos, es capaz de reconocer algo de razón en todo y en todos. Sólo desde ahí es posible el diálogo, instrumento esencial en una sociedad democrática; se entiende el verdadero diálogo, que desde el respeto a mi verdad y a  tu verdad abre brecha en la verdad.

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