Experiencia de Dios

jesus na cruzLa “experiencia de Dios” no se identifica con la “experiencia religiosa”. Se puede tener la segunda, sin tener la primera.  La religiosidad es el cumplimiento de unas obligaciones religiosas; y en ese sentido, todos los pueblos de la antigüedad, incluso los más primitivos, han vivido esa religiosidad; todos han sido “religiosos” de alguna manera. La palabra “religión”, de la que procede religiosidad, viene del verbo latino “religare”. El hombre se siente ligado a Dios por un  conjunto de lazos dogmáticos, disciplinarios y salvíficos que unen al hombre con Dios, un ser superior y poderoso, al que hay que satisfacer de alguna manera, bien sea con sacrificios y ofrendas o bien con actos de culto , a poder ser fastuosos. Pertenece al orden del entendimiento y del sentimiento, pero no al experiencial. Si damos por asumido que el cristianismo no es una religión, sino un estilo de vida, concluiremos que “lo religioso” no es necesariamente cristiano, aunque puede predisponer  y facilitar la vivencia cristiana. En otras ocasiones, también lo puede dificultar, si no se pasa del mero sentimiento y mero conocimiento, a la propia experiencia de Dios.

Es muy conocida la expresión del gran teólogo Karl Rahner: “el cristiano del futuro será un místico, o no será nada”. Y el Papa Benedicto XVI en la catequesis de una de  las Audiencias Generales de los miércoles, aseguró que sin oración no hay experiencia de Dios“.  Pero ¿qué queremos decir cuando hablamos de “experiencia de Dios”?

La palara “experiencia” proviene del verbo latino “experiri”, que significa comprobar, saber por uno mismo y no por otros;  es una forma de conocimiento o habilidad derivados de la observación, de la vivencia de un acontecimiento,  o proveniente de las cosas que suceden en la vida. Según eso, diríamos que “experiencia de Dios” equivaldría a conocer a Dios (en la medida de lo posible) a través de vivencias como el perdón, el consuelo, la paz, el sentirse amado, saberse seguro junto a él, poder confiar contra toda esperanza humana, etc… Es decir, descubrir vivencialmente lo que es Dios para ti, pero no por un conocimiento de definiciones, dogmas o estudio. No se trata de un conocimiento científico, sino de un conocimiento empírico. En la experiencia de Dios, se da un movimiento de arriba abajo (Dios toma la iniciativa), mientras que en la religiosidad es el hombre el que trata de ascender hasta Dios, para complacerle.

Decía el Papa que “sin oración no hay experiencia de Dios”. La razón es que la oración nos lleva a la intimidad, al encuentro profundo y sincero con Dios. En la oración valoramos, también, la acción amorosa de Dios. Decía San Agustín que “Dios está más íntimo a  ti, que tú mismo”. Y ese Dios tan íntimo a uno mismo se le descubre, fundamentalmente, en la oración, y se llega a tener una experiencia de Él, de su ser y de su hacer. Y uno puede llegar al conocimiento de Dios por sus propios datos, sus vivencias, su experiencia, no ya por un tratado de teología ni por una catequesis sobre Dios (aunque esto también puede ayudar).

Todos los santos han tenido experiencia de Dios, porque han orado mucho. Yo creo que lo que Rahner decía sobre la necesidad de ser “místicos” para ser cristianos, iba en esa dirección. Hay una gran diferencia entre el que habla por experiencia, y el que habla “de libro”. Es muy diferente lo que te comunica alguien que ha vivido experiencialmente un acontecimiento (alegre o triste) y el que te lo cuenta de “oídas”. En este último caso es una mera trasmisión de conocimientos, mientras que en el primero, es la vivencia personal (o colectiva) la que actúa.

Creo que la inmensa mayoría de los cristianos, hoy día, carecen de esa “experiencia de Dios”, y su fe se alimenta de conocimientos (por cierto bien escasos, generalmente). Unas relaciones con Dios, desde ese aspecto,  deja  mucho que desear, y nunca serán gratificantes. Pero no nos engañemos; llegar a esa experiencia divina es gratuita, pero no fácil.

                                                                                                    Félix González

 

 

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